But it does represent a continuing meritocratic trend in Chinese society with a history unparalleled elsewhere. A high degree of national stability was ensured despite changes of emperor and dynasty because the civil service, fuelled by the exam system, could continue independently of the imperial regime.
In the yearonly two students passed the highest, or jin-shi, test. Oral examinations on policy issues were sometimes conducted personally by the emperor himself during Western Han times.
Until the Guanxu Reforms ofthe notorious eight-legged essay, a rigid traditional format, was the mainstay of the exam papers. Packed with vivid anecdotes, this brief and captivating text describes all examination tiers.
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These exams were based on a thorough mastery of the extensive corpus of Confucian classical texts, with their voluminous commentaries, of political essays composed by exemplary Confucians of the post-Classical era, and of the arts of poetry, calligraphy, and essay composition that marked one as a cultivated member of the Chinese intellectual elite.
Most of the candidates came from the numerically small but relatively wealthy land-owning scholar-official class. This system continued until This system was abolished in by Emperor Wen of Sui who created a system wherein every prefecture would supply three scholars a year.
Their loyalty, in turn, ensured the integration of the Chinese state and countered tendencies toward regional autonomy and the breakup of the centralized system. Chronicle of the Chinese Emperor by Ann Paludan. There are several books with an identical title, so make sure to use the one authored by Wang Daocheng.
The Imperial examinations represented a remarkable attempt to create an aristocracy of learning, which in itself represent a remarkable advance over the warrior and hereditary aristocracies that dominated in the rest of the world.
Often a promising young boy would be supported by a syndicate of extended family and friends who would pay for materials, tutors and books.
The top students at the top level were admitted to the prestigious Hanlin Academy. In dynastic China the path to wealth and an easy life was through appointment to a well paid government post as a civil service official. While there are a few famous literary instances of women dressing up as men to take the exams, in practice, women were entirely excluded from the system.
Exact quotes from the classics were required; misquoting even one character or writing it in the wrong form meant failure, so candidates went to great lengths to bring hidden copies of these texts with them, sometimes written on their underwear.
On 2 Septemberthe throne endorsed a memorial which ordered that the old examination system be discontinued at all levels in the following years. Examples include Wang Anshiwho proposed reforms to make the exams more practical, and Zhu Xiwhose interpretations of the Four Classics became the orthodox Neo-Confucianism which dominated later dynasties.
The core texts consisted of the Four Books and the Five Classics, works attributed to Confucius and certain of his disciples, along with a number of approved commentaries. However, the structure of the examination system was extensively expanded during the reign of Wu Zetian: After they were held every three years, but only for those who first passed qualifying tests on the local level.
The Imperial Examination The origins of the exam system lie in the Han period, but the early scholarly examinations were consolidated during the Sui period, and began to be truly effective under the Tang Dynasty.Below is an essay on "The Imperial Civil Service Exams" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.
The Imperial Civil Service Exams The civil service system grew into a mature form and most government officials had to take exams in order to get into the civil.
civil service examinations.
One of the unintended con-sequences of the examinations was the creation of legions of classically literate men who used their linguistic talents for a variety of nonofficial purposes: from physicians to pettifoggers, from fiction writers to examination essay teachers, and from ritual specialists to lineage agents.
The Imperial Civil Exam System The Chinese civil examination system from AD to the industrial revolution, was the most progressive system of its kind in the world. Theoretically the government's exams allowed any Chinese man an equal chance at even the highest positions in politics and society.4/5(2).
The Imperial Exams CLASS SET Answer the following questions in your binder as you read: the notorious eight-legged essay, a rigid traditional format, was the mainstay of the exam papers. A high degree of national stability was ensured despite changes of emperor and dynasty because the civil service, fuelled by the exam system, could.
The Imperial examination system of China goes back over two thousand years and its influence pervades Chinese cultural values to this day. In dynastic China the path to wealth and an easy life was through appointment to a well paid government post as a civil service mint-body.com posts were open to any who could pass the daunting examinations.
The earliest imperial exams were administered during the Han Dynasty ( BCE to CE) and continued in the brief Sui era, but the testing system was standardized in Tang China ( - CE). The reigning Empress Wu Zetian of Tang particularly relied on the imperial examination system for .Download